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What does the p-value tell a researcher?

The P value means the probability, for a given statistical model that, when the null hypothesis is true, the statistical summary would be equal to or more extreme than the actual observed results [2]. The smaller the P value, the greater statistical incompatibility of the data with the null hypothesis.

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What does p-value of .03 mean?

The level of statistical significance is often expressed as the so-called p-value. So, you might get a p-value such as 0.03 (i.e., p = . 03). This means that there is a 3% chance of finding a difference as large as (or larger than) the one in your study given that the null hypothesis is true.

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What does p-value of 1 mean?

When the data is perfectly described by the resticted model, the probability to get data that is less well described is 1. For instance, if the sample means in two groups are identical, the p-values of a t-test is 1.

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What does the p-value mean about your sample?

In technical terms, a P value is the probability of obtaining an effect at least as extreme as the one in your sample data, assuming the truth of the null hypothesis. For example, suppose that a vaccine study produced a P value of 0.04.

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What does p-value of 0.5 mean?

Mathematical probabilities like p-values range from 0 (no chance) to 1 (absolute certainty). So 0.5 means a 50 per cent chance and 0.05 means a 5 per cent chance. In most sciences, results yielding a p-value of . 05 are considered on the borderline of statistical significance.

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Can the p-value be greater than 1?

Explanation: A p-value tells you the probability of having a result that is equal to or greater than the result you achieved under your specific hypothesis. It is a probability and, as a probability, it ranges from 0-1.0 and cannot exceed one.

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How do you reject the null hypothesis with p-value?

If the p-value is less than 0.05, we reject the null hypothesis that there’s no difference between the means and conclude that a significant difference does exist. If the p-value is larger than 0.05, we cannot conclude that a significant difference exists.

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Is p-value of 0.05 Significant?

A statistically significant test result (P ≤ 0.05) means that the test hypothesis is false or should be rejected. A P value greater than 0.05 means that no effect was observed.

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Is p-value of 0.03 significant?

The p-value 0.03 means that there’s 3% (probability in percentage) that the result is due to chance — which is not true. A p-value doesn’t *prove* anything. It’s simply a way to use surprise as a basis for making a reasonable decision.

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What does p-value mean in simple terms?

P-value is the probability that a random chance generated the data or something else that is equal or rarer (under the null hypothesis). We calculate the p-value for the sample statistics(which is the sample mean in our case).

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Is p-value 0.04 Significant?

The Chi-square test that you apply yields a P value of 0.04, a value that is less than 0.05. The interpretation is wrong because a P value, even one that is statistically significant, does not determine truth.

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What does p-value mean in plain English?

In academic literature, the p-value is defined as the probability that the data would be at least as extreme as those observed, if the null hypothesis were true. The result of 18 heads + 2 tails goes to the periphery of the probability curve (that is, more extreme).

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What is a good p-value?

The smaller the p-value, the stronger the evidence that you should reject the null hypothesis. A p-value less than 0.05 (typically ≤ 0.05) is statistically significant. A p-value higher than 0.05 (> 0.05) is not statistically significant and indicates strong evidence for the null hypothesis.

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What does p-value of 0.01 mean?

eg the p-value = 0.01, it means if you reproduced the experiment (with the same conditions) 100 times, and assuming the null hypothesis is true, you would see the results only 1 time. OR in the case that the null hypothesis is true, there’s only a 1% chance of seeing the results.

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How do you write the p-value?

The APA suggest “p value” The p is lowercase and italicized, and there is no hyphen between “p” and “value”. GraphPad has adapted the style “P value”, which is used by the NEJM and journals. The P is upper case and not italicized, and there is no hyphen between “P” and “value”.

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Is a high p-value good or bad?

A small p-value (typically ≤ 0.05) indicates strong evidence against the null hypothesis, so you reject the null hypothesis. A large p-value (> 0.05) indicates weak evidence against the null hypothesis, so you fail to reject the null hypothesis. Always report the p-value so your readers can draw their own conclusions.

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Is p-value of 0.001 significant?

Conventionally the 5% (less than 1 in 20 chance of being wrong), 1% and 0.1% (P < 0.05, 0.01 and 0.001) levels have been used. Most authors refer to statistically significant as P < 0.05 and statistically highly significant as P < 0.001 (less than one in a thousand chance of being wrong).

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What does a high p-value indicate?

High p-values indicate that your evidence is not strong enough to suggest an effect exists in the population. An effect might exist but it’s possible that the effect size is too small, the sample size is too small, or there is too much variability for the hypothesis test to detect it.