Table of Contents

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How do you analyze ANCOVA?

To carry out an ANCOVA, select Analyze → General Linear Model → Univariate Put the dependent variable (weight lost) in the Dependent Variable box and the independent variable (diet) in the Fixed Factors box. Proceed to put the covariates of interest (height) in the Covariate(s) box.

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When should you not use ANCOVA?

If the X or Y populations from which data to be analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were sampled violate one or more of the ANCOVA assumptions, the results of the analysis may be incorrect or misleading. For example, if the assumption of independence is violated, then analysis of covariance is not appropriate.

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What is the use of regression analysis?

Typically, a regression analysis is done for one of two purposes: In order to predict the value of the dependent variable for individuals for whom some information concerning the explanatory variables is available, or in order to estimate the effect of some explanatory variable on the dependent variable.

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What does the square of correlation measure?

The square of the correlation coefficient, r², is a useful value in linear regression. This value represents the fraction of the variation in one variable that may be explained by the other variable.

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How do you interpret covariance analysis?

Covariance gives you a positive number if the variables are positively related. You’ll get a negative number if they are negatively related. A high covariance basically indicates there is a strong relationship between the variables. A low value means there is a weak relationship.

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What is a repeated measures ANCOVA?

The repeated measures ANCOVA compares means across one or more variables that are based on repeated observations while controlling for a confounding variable. A repeated measures ANOVA model can also include zero or more independent variables and up to ten covariate factors.

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How does an ANCOVA work?

ANCOVA allows you to remove covariates from the list of possible explanations of variance in the dependent variable. ANCOVA does this by using statistical techniques (such as regression to partial out the effects of covariates) rather than direct experimental methods to control extraneous variables.

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Can ANCOVA be used for two groups?

The two-way ANCOVA can be used when you have an observational study design. In this type of study design, the researcher is placing participants into different groups of two independent variables based on the characteristics of those different groups.

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What is the first step in interpreting the results of ANCOVA?

In summary, the first step in interpreting the results of ANCOVA is to determine if factor inter- action is present by examining the F ratio and p value for the interaction. If no interaction is present, then each factor’s main effect can be reliably interpreted.

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How do you interpret a correlation coefficient?

Degree of correlation: Perfect: If the value is near ± 1, then it said to be a perfect correlation: as one variable increases, the other variable tends to also increase (if positive) or decrease (if negative). High degree: If the coefficient value lies between ± 0.50 and ± 1, then it is said to be a strong correlation.

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What does a correlation analysis tell you?

Correlation is a statistical technique that can show whether and how strongly pairs of variables are related. For example, height and weight are related; taller people tend to be heavier than shorter people. An intelligent correlation analysis can lead to a greater understanding of your data.

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What are the assumptions of ANCOVA?

ANCOVA has the same assumptions as any linear model (see your handout on bias) except that there are two important additional considerations: (1) independence of the covariate and treatment effect, and (2) homogeneity of regression slopes.

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Is ANCOVA the same as multiple regression?

ANCOVA and multiple linear regression are similar, but regression is more appropriate when the emphasis is on the dependent outcome variable, while ANCOVA is more appropriate when the emphasis is on comparing the groups from one of the independent variables.

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What is effect size in ANCOVA?

When an ANCOVA is performed, a term has to be added to the model in order to take into account the quantitative predictors. The effect size is then multiplied by f = √1 / (1 – ρ²) where ρ² is the theoretical value of the square multiple correlation coefficient associated to the quantitative predictors.

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When should ANCOVA be used?

ANCOVA is generally used where the main interest are categorical predictor variables, and you can control the effect of interfering variables – either categorical or continuous. 1.

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How do you interpret a significant covariate ANCOVA?

If one or more of your covariates are significant it simply means that it significantly adjust your dependent variable Smoking.

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What is the best statistical test to use?

Choosing a nonparametric test Predictor variable Use in place of… Chi square test of independence Categorical Pearson’s r Sign test Categorical One-sample t-test Kruskal–Wallis H Categorical 3 or more groups ANOVA ANOSIM Categorical 3 or more groups MANOVA.

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What is the difference between ANOVA and ANCOVA?

ANOVA is used to compare and contrast the means of two or more populations. ANCOVA is used to compare one variable in two or more populations while considering other variables.

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What are the four assumptions of ANOVA?

The factorial ANOVA has a several assumptions that need to be fulfilled – (1) interval data of the dependent variable, (2) normality, (3) homoscedasticity, and (4) no multicollinearity.

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What does the ANCOVA tell you?

ANCOVA evaluates whether the means of a dependent variable (DV) are equal across levels of a categorical independent variable (IV) often called a treatment, while statistically controlling for the effects of other continuous variables that are not of primary interest, known as covariates (CV) or nuisance variables.

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What’s the difference between one way and two-way Anova?

A one-way ANOVA only involves one factor or independent variable, whereas there are two independent variables in a two-way ANOVA. In a one-way ANOVA, the one factor or independent variable analyzed has three or more categorical groups. A two-way ANOVA instead compares multiple groups of two factors.

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What do you do if ANCOVA is significant?

Most materials on ANCOVA provided examples where this interaction is insignificant and that is the ideal result. some recommend if the interaction is significant, just stop interprete the effect of A. In two-way ANOVA, we can do simple-effect analysis of variable A when significant interaction is found.

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What are the assumptions of Manova?

Assumptions for MANOVA designs are (a) multivariate normality, (b) homoscedasticity, (c) linearity, and (d) independence and randomness. Observations on all dependent variables are multivariately normally distributed for each level within each group and for all linear combinations of the dependent variables.